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A new, comprehensively updated edition of the acclaimed textbook by F.H. Attix (Introduction to Radiological Physics and Radiation Dosimetry) taking into account the substantial developments in dosimetry since its first edition. This monograph covers charged and uncharged particle interactions at a level consistent with the advanced use of the Monte Carlo method in dosimetry; radiation quantities, macroscopic behaviour and the characterization of radiation fields and beams are covered in detail. A number of chapters include addenda presenting derivations and discussions that offer new insight into established dosimetric principles and concepts. The theoretical aspects of dosimetry are given in the comprehensive chapter on cavity theory, followed by the description of primary measurement standards, ionization chambers, chemical dosimeters and solid state detectors. Chapters on applications include reference dosimetry for standard and small fields in radiotherapy, diagnostic radiology and interventional procedures, dosimetry of unsealed and sealed radionuclide sources, and neutron beam dosimetry. The topics are presented in a logical, easy-to-follow sequence and the text is supplemented by numerous illustrative diagrams, tables and appendices. For senior undergraduate- or graduate-level students and professionals.

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Due to the consequences of globa l warming and significant greenhouse gas emissions, several ideas have been studied to reduce these emissions or to suggest solut ions for pollutant remov al. The most promising ideas are reduced consumption, waste recovery and waste treatment by biological systems. In this latter category, studies have demonstrated that the use of microalgae is a very promising solution for the biofixation of carbon dioxide. In fact, these micro-organisms are able to offset high levels of CO2 thanks to photosynthesis. Microalgae are also used in various fields (food industry, fertilizers, biofuel, etc.). To obtain a n optimal C O2 sequestration us ing micr oal gae, their cul tivatio n has to be c arried ou t in a f avorable e nvironment, corresponding to optimal operating conditions (temperature, nutrients, pH, light, etc.). Therefore, microalgae are grown in an enclosure, i.e. photobioreactors, which notably operate in continuous mode. This type of closed reactor notably enables us to reduce culture contamination, to improve CO2 transfer and to better control the cultivation system. This last point involves the regulation of concentrations (biomass, substrate or by-product) in addition to conventional regulations (pH, temperature). To do this, we have to establish a model of the system and to identify its parameters; to put in place estimators in order to rebuild variables that are not measured online (software sensor); and finally to implement a control law, in order to maintain the system in optimal conditions despite modeling errors and environmental disturbances that can have an influence on the system (pH variations, temperature, light, biofilm appearance, etc.).

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Presents a comprehensive description of the theory and practical implementation of Doppler radar-based physiological monitoring This book includes an overview of current physiological monitoring techniques and explains the fundamental technology used in remote non-contact monitoring methods. Basic radio wave propagation and radar principles are introduced along with the fundamentals of physiological motion and measurement. Specific design and implementation considerations for physiological monitoring radar systems are then discussed in detail. The authors address current research and commercial development of Doppler radar based physiological monitoring for healthcare and other applications. Explains pros and cons of different Doppler radar architectures, including CW, FMCW, and pulsed Doppler radar Discusses nonlinear demodulation methods, explaining dc offset, dc information, center tracking, and demodulation enabled by dc cancellation Reviews advanced system architectures that address issues of dc offset, spectrum folding, motion interference, and range resolution Covers Doppler radar physiological measurements demonstrated to date, from basic cardiopulmonary rate extractions to more involved volume assessments Doppler Radar Physiological Sensing serves as a fundamental reference for radar, biomedical, and microwave engineers as well as healthcare professionals interested in remote physiological monitoring methods.

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The current state of the science supporting new research in lysophospholipids The study of lysophospholipids exploded with the discovery of cell surface receptors on both lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). Since then, thousands of original research reports—ranging from fundamental cell signaling to the physiology and pathophysiology of individual organ systems—have centered on lysophospholipids. This book draws together and analyzes the current literature to provide readers with a state-of-the-science review as well as current techniques that support research in all aspects of the field of lysophospholipid signaling. Lysophospholipid Receptors is divided into three sections: Receptors and other possible effectors Enzymes Physiology and pathophysiology Within each section, the authors explain the similarities and differences between LPA and S1P signaling. Examples are provided that demonstrate the underlying mechanisms of lysophospholipid signaling across a broad range of organ systems, such as S1P signaling in cardiovascular physiology and disease and the neural effects of LPA signaling. Extensive references at the end of each chapter provide a gateway to the literature and facilitate further research into individual topics. Each chapter has been authored by one or more leading international authorities in lysophospholipid research. Based on a thorough analysis of the current research, the authors set forth what is established science and offer their expert opinion and perspective on new and emerging areas of research, setting the stage for further investigations that will solve current problems in the field.

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The first textbook of its kind, Critical Educational Psychology is a forward-thinking approach to educational psychology that uses critical perspectives to challenge current ways of thinking and improve practice.

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Invented by J. Monod, and independently by A. Novick and L. Szilard, in 1950, the chemostat is both a micro-organism culturing device and an abstracted ecosystem managed by a controlled nutrient flow. This book studies mathematical models of single species growth as well as competition models of multiple species by integrating recent work in theoretical ecology and population dynamics. Through a modeling approach, the hypotheses and conclusions drawn from the main mathematical results are analyzed and interpreted from a critical perspective. A large emphasis is placed on numerical simulations of which prudent use is advocated. The Chemostat is aimed at readers possessing degree-level mathematical knowledge and includes a detailed appendix of differential equations relating to specific notions and results used throughout this book.

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This monograph is the outcome of an American Geophysical Union Chapman Conference on longitude and hemispheric dependence of ionospheric space weather, including the impact of waves propagating from the lower atmosphere. The Chapman Conference was held in Africa as a means of focusing attention on an extensive geographic region where observations are critically needed to address some of the fundamental questions of the physical processes driving the ionosphere locally and globally. The compilation of papers from the conference describes the physics of this system and the mechanisms that control ionospheric space weather in a combination of tutorial-like and focused articles that will be of value to the upper atmosphere scientific community in general and to ongoing global magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere (MIT) modeling efforts in particular. A number of articles from each science theme describe details of the physics behind each phenomenon that help to solve the complexity of the MIT system. Because this volume is an outcome of the research presented at this first space science Chapman Conference held in Africa, it has further provided an opportunity for African scientists to communicate their research results with the international community. In addition, the meeting and this conference volume will greatly enhance the space science education and research interest in the African continent and around the world. Ionospheric Space Weather includes articles from six science themes that were discussed at the Chapman Conference in 2012. These include: Hemispherical dependence of magnetospheric energy injection and the thermosphere-ionosphere response Longitude and hemispheric dependence of storm-enhanced densities (SED) Response of the thermosphere and ionosphere to variability in solar radiation Longitude spatial structure in total electron content and electrodynamics Temporal response to lower-atmosphere disturbances Ionospheric irregularities and scintillation Ionospheric Space Weather: Longitude Dependence and Lower Atmosphere Forcing will be useful to both active researchers and advanced graduate students in the field of physics, geophysics, and engineering, especially those who are keen to acquire a global understanding of ionospheric phenomena, including observational information from all longitude sectors across the globe.

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Examines the intersection of quantum information and chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series is dedicated to reviewing new and emerging topics as well as the latest developments in traditional areas of study in the field of chemical physics. Each volume features detailed comprehensive analyses coupled with individual points of view that integrate the many disciplines of science that are needed for a full understanding of chemical physics. This volume of the series explores the latest research findings, applications, and new research paths from the quantum information science community. It examines topics in quantum computation and quantum information that are related to or intersect with key topics in chemical physics. The reviews address both what chemistry can contribute to quantum information and what quantum information can contribute to the study of chemical systems, surveying both theoretical and experimental quantum information research within the field of chemical physics. With contributions from an international team of leading experts, Volume 154 offers seventeen detailed reviews, including: Introduction to quantum information and computation for chemistry Quantum computing approach to non-relativistic and relativistic molecular energy calculations Quantum algorithms for continuous problems and their applications Photonic toolbox for quantum simulation Vibrational energy and information transfer through molecular chains Tensor networks for entanglement evolution Reviews published in Advances in Chemical Physics are typically longer than those published in journals, providing the space needed for readers to fully grasp the topic: the fundamentals as well as the latest discoveries, applications, and emerging avenues of research. Extensive cross-referencing enables readers to explore the primary research studies underlying each topic.

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Pandemics, epidemics and food borne diseases are a major global challenge. Focusing on the food and farming sector, and mobilising social theory as well as empirical enquiry, Pathological Lives investigates current approaches to biosecurity and ask how pathological lives can be successfully ‘regulated’ without making life more dangerous as a result. Uses empirical and social theoretical resources developed in the course of a 40-month research project entitled ‘Biosecurity borderlands’ Focuses on the food and farming sector, where the generation and subsequent transmission of disease has the ability to reach pandemic proportions Demonstrates the importance of a geographical and spatial analysis, drawing together social, material and biological approaches, as well as national and international examples The book makes three main conceptual contributions, reconceptualising disease as situated matters, the spatial or topological analysis of situations and a reformulation of biopolitics Uniquely brings together conceptual development with empirically and politically informed work on infectious and zoonotic disease, to produce a timely and important contribution to both social science and to policy debate

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The metal-catalyzed amination of aryl and alkenyl electrophiles has developed into a widely used methodology for the synthesis of natural products, active pharmaceutical ingredients, agricultural chemicals, and materials for molecular electronics. Copper catalysts promote the coupling of a wide range of nitrogen nucleophiles, including amines, amides, and heteroaromatic nitrogen compounds with aryl and alkenyl halides. The reactivity profile of copper catalysts is complementary to that of palladium catalysts in many cases. Copper catalysts are highly effective with less nucleophilic nitrogen nucleophiles, such as amides and azoles, whereas palladium catalysts are more effective with more nucleophilic amine nucleophiles. Copper is an attractive alternative to palladium due to its significantly lower cost. In addition, high activity palladium catalysts require expensive and often air-sensitive ligands, whereas the modern copper systems use relatively stable and inexpensive diamine or amino acid ligands. Copper-catalyzed C?N coupling reactions are tolerant of a wide range of functional groups and have been applied to the synthesis of a variety of complex natural products. Significant work has also been done to understand the mechanism of these reactions. Current mechanistic understanding of these methodologies is covered in this monograph. The contents of the book are taken from the comprehensive review of the topic in the Organic Reactions series. Optimal experimental conditions for the amination of aryl and alkenyl halides with all classes of nitrogen nucleophiles are presented. Specific experimental procedures from the literature are provided for the major classes of copper-catalyzed C?N coupling reactions. A tabular survey of all examples of Cu-catalyzed arylation and alkenylation of nitrogen nucleophiles is presented in 35 tables organized by nitrogen nucleophile and electrophilic coupling partner. The literature is covered through December 2015 and provides 300 recent citations to supplement the 680 citations of the original hardbound chapter. These latest literature references have been collected in separate sections according to the sequence of the tables in the tabular survey section. In each of the sections, the individual citations have been arranged in alphabetic order of the author names. Copper-Catalyzed Amination of Aryl and Alkenyl Electrophiles is intended to provide organic chemists with an accessible, but detailed, introduction to this important class of transformations.