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## Математика

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### Аннотация

The aim of this book is to promote interaction between engineering, finance and insurance, as these three domains have many models and methods of solution in common for solving real-life problems. The authors point out the strict inter-relations that exist among the diffusion models used in engineering, finance and insurance. In each of the three fields, the basic diffusion models are presented and their strong similarities are discussed. Analytical, numerical and Monte Carlo simulation methods are explained with a view to applying them to obtain the solutions to the different problems presented in the book. Advanced topics such as nonlinear problems, Lévy processes and semi-Markov models in interactions with the diffusion models are discussed, as well as possible future interactions among engineering, finance and insurance. Contents 1. Diffusion Phenomena and Models. 2. Probabilistic Models of Diffusion Processes. 3. Solving Partial Differential Equations of Second Order. 4. Problems in Finance. 5. Basic PDE in Finance. 6. Exotic and American Options Pricing Theory. 7. Hitting Times for Diffusion Processes and Stochastic Models in Insurance. 8. Numerical Methods. 9. Advanced Topics in Engineering: Nonlinear Models. 10. Lévy Processes. 11. Advanced Topics in Insurance: Copula Models and VaR Techniques. 12. Advanced Topics in Finance: Semi-Markov Models. 13. Monte Carlo Semi-Markov Simulation Methods. About the Authors Jacques Janssen is now Honorary Professor at the Solvay Business School (ULB) in Brussels, Belgium, having previously taught at EURIA (Euro-Institut d’Actuariat, University of West Brittany, Brest, France) and Télécom-Bretagne (Brest, France) as well as being a director of Jacan Insurance and Finance Services, a consultancy and training company. Oronzio Manca is Professor of thermal sciences at Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli in Italy. He is currently Associate Editor of ASME Journal of Heat Transfer and Journal of Porous Media and a member of the editorial advisory boards for The Open Thermodynamics Journal, Advances in Mechanical Engineering, The Open Fuels & Energy Science Journal. Raimondo Manca is Professor of mathematical methods applied to economics, finance and actuarial science at University of Rome “La Sapienza” in Italy. He is associate editor for the journal Methodology and Computing in Applied Probability. His main research interests are multidimensional linear algebra, computational probability, application of stochastic processes to economics, finance and insurance and simulation models.

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Praise for the First Edition «…[t]he book is great for readers who need to apply the methods and models presented but have little background in mathematics and statistics.» -MAA Reviews Thoroughly updated throughout, Introduction to Time Series Analysis and Forecasting, Second Edition presents the underlying theories of time series analysis that are needed to analyze time-oriented data and construct real-world short- to medium-term statistical forecasts. Authored by highly-experienced academics and professionals in engineering statistics, the Second Edition features discussions on both popular and modern time series methodologies as well as an introduction to Bayesian methods in forecasting. Introduction to Time Series Analysis and Forecasting, Second Edition also includes: Over 300 exercises from diverse disciplines including health care, environmental studies, engineering, and finance More than 50 programming algorithms using JMP®, SAS®, and R that illustrate the theory and practicality of forecasting techniques in the context of time-oriented data New material on frequency domain and spatial temporal data analysis Expanded coverage of the variogram and spectrum with applications as well as transfer and intervention model functions A supplementary website featuring PowerPoint® slides, data sets, and select solutions to the problems Introduction to Time Series Analysis and Forecasting, Second Edition is an ideal textbook upper-undergraduate and graduate-levels courses in forecasting and time series. The book is also an excellent reference for practitioners and researchers who need to model and analyze time series data to generate forecasts.

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This book summarizes the results of various models under normal theory with a brief review of the literature. Statistical Inference for Models with Multivariate t-Distributed Errors: Includes a wide array of applications for the analysis of multivariate observations Emphasizes the development of linear statistical models with applications to engineering, the physical sciences, and mathematics Contains an up-to-date bibliography featuring the latest trends and advances in the field to provide a collective source for research on the topic Addresses linear regression models with non-normal errors with practical real-world examples Uniquely addresses regression models in Student's t-distributed errors and t-models Supplemented with an Instructor's Solutions Manual, which is available via written request by the Publisher

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A comprehensive account of the theory and application of Monte Carlo methods Based on years of research in efficient Monte Carlo methods for estimation of rare-event probabilities, counting problems, and combinatorial optimization, Fast Sequential Monte Carlo Methods for Counting and Optimization is a complete illustration of fast sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The book provides an accessible overview of current work in the field of Monte Carlo methods, specifically sequential Monte Carlo techniques, for solving abstract counting and optimization problems. Written by authorities in the field, the book places emphasis on cross-entropy, minimum cross-entropy, splitting, and stochastic enumeration. Focusing on the concepts and application of Monte Carlo techniques, Fast Sequential Monte Carlo Methods for Counting and Optimization includes: Detailed algorithms needed to practice solving real-world problems Numerous examples with Monte Carlo method produced solutions within the 1-2% limit of relative error A new generic sequential importance sampling algorithm alongside extensive numerical results An appendix focused on review material to provide additional background information Fast Sequential Monte Carlo Methods for Counting and Optimization is an excellent resource for engineers, computer scientists, mathematicians, statisticians, and readers interested in efficient simulation techniques. The book is also useful for upper-undergraduate and graduate-level courses on Monte Carlo methods.

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Reinsurance: Actuarial and Statistical Aspects provides a survey of both the academic literature in the field as well as challenges appearing in reinsurance practice and puts the two in perspective. The book is written for researchers with an interest in reinsurance problems, for graduate students with a basic knowledge of probability and statistics as well as for reinsurance practitioners. The focus of the book is on modelling together with the statistical challenges that go along with it. The discussed statistical approaches are illustrated alongside six case studies of insurance loss data sets, ranging from MTPL over fire to storm and flood loss data. Some of the presented material also contains new results that have not yet been published in the research literature. An extensive bibliography provides readers with links for further study.

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This title is written for the numerate nonspecialist, and hopes to serve three purposes. First it gathers mathematical material from diverse but related fields of order statistics, records, extreme value theory, majorization, regular variation and subexponentiality. All of these are relevant for understanding fat tails, but they are not, to our knowledge, brought together in a single source for the target readership. Proofs that give insight are included, but for most fussy calculations the reader is referred to the excellent sources referenced in the text. Multivariate extremes are not treated. This allows us to present material spread over hundreds of pages in specialist texts in twenty pages. Chapter 5 develops new material on heavy tail diagnostics and gives more mathematical detail. Since variances and covariances may not exist for heavy tailed joint distributions, Chapter 6 reviews dependence concepts for certain classes of heavy tailed joint distributions, with a view to regressing heavy tailed variables. Second, it presents a new measure of obesity. The most popular definitions in terms of regular variation and subexponentiality invoke putative properties that hold at infinity, and this complicates any empirical estimate. Each definition captures some but not all of the intuitions associated with tail heaviness. Chapter 5 studies two candidate indices of tail heaviness based on the tendency of the mean excess plot to collapse as data are aggregated. The probability that the largest value is more than twice the second largest has intuitive appeal but its estimator has very poor accuracy. The Obesity index is defined for a positive random variable X as: Ob(X) = P (X1 +X4 > X2 +X3|X1 ≤ X2 ≤ X3 ≤ X4), Xi independent copies of X. For empirical distributions, obesity is defined by bootstrapping. This index reasonably captures intuitions of tail heaviness. Among its properties, if α > 1 then Ob(X) < Ob(Xα). However, it does not completely mimic the tail index of regularly varying distributions, or the extreme value index. A Weibull distribution with shape 1/4 is more obese than a Pareto distribution with tail index 1, even though this Pareto has infinite mean and the Weibull’s moments are all finite. Chapter 5 explores properties of the Obesity index. Third and most important, we hope to convince the reader that fat tail phenomena pose real problems; they are really out there and they seriously challenge our usual ways of thinking about historical averages, outliers, trends, regression coefficients and confidence bounds among many other things. Data on flood insurance claims, crop loss claims, hospital discharge bills, precipitation and damages and fatalities from natural catastrophes drive this point home. While most fat tailed distributions are ”bad”, research in fat tails is one distribution whose tail will hopefully get fatter.

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This book provides an introduction to index numbers for statisticians, economists and numerate members of the public. It covers the essential basics, mixing theoretical aspects with practical techniques to give a balanced and accessible introduction to the subject. The concepts are illustrated by exploring the construction and use of the Consumer Prices Index which is arguably the most important of all official statistics in the UK. The book also considers current issues and developments in the field including the use of large-scale price transaction data. A Practical Introduction to Index Numbers will be the ideal accompaniment for students taking the index number components of the Royal Statistical Society Ordinary and Higher Certificate exams; it provides suggested routes through the book for students, and sets of exercises with solutions.

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A comprehensive guide to ranks and group theory Ranks of Groups features a logical, straightforward presentation, beginning with a succinct discussion of the standard ranks before moving on to specific aspects of ranks of groups. Topics covered include section ranks, groups of finite 0-rank, minimax rank, special rank, groups of finite section p-rank, groups having finite section p-rank for all primes p, groups of finite bounded section rank, groups whose abelian subgroups have finite rank, groups whose abelian subgroups have bounded finite rank, finitely generated groups having finite rank, residual properties of groups of finite rank, groups covered by normal subgroups of bounded finite rank, and theorems of Schur and Baer. This book presents fundamental concepts and notions related to the area of ranks in groups. Class-tested worldwide by highly qualified authors in the fields of abstract algebra and group theory, this book focuses on critical concepts with the most interesting, striking, and central results. In order to provide readers with the most useful techniques related to the various different ranks in a group, the authors have carefully examined hundreds of current research articles on group theory authored by researchers around the world, providing an up-to-date, comprehensive treatment of the subject. • All material has been thoroughly vetted and class-tested by well-known researchers who have worked in the area of rank conditions in groups • Topical coverage reflects the most modern, up-to-date research on ranks of groups • Features a unified point-of-view on the most important results in ranks obtained using various methods so as to illustrate the role those ranks play within group theory • Focuses on the tools and methods concerning ranks necessary to achieve significant progress in the study and clarification of the structure of groups Ranks of Groups: The Tools, Characteristics, and Restrictions is an excellent textbook for graduate courses in mathematics, featuring numerous exercises, whose solutions are provided. This book will be an indispensable resource for mathematicians and researchers specializing in group theory and abstract algebra. MARTYN R. DIXON, PhD, is Professor in the Department of Mathematics at the University of Alabama. LEONID A. KURDACHENKO, PhD, DrS, is Distinguished Professor and Chair of the Department of Algebra at the University of Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine. IGOR YA SUBBOTIN, PhD, is Professor in the Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences at National University in Los Angeles, California.

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A detailed review of a wide range of meta-heuristic and evolutionary algorithms in a systematic manner and how they relate to engineering optimization problems This book introduces the main metaheuristic algorithms and their applications in optimization. It describes 20 leading meta-heuristic and evolutionary algorithms and presents discussions and assessments of their performance in solving optimization problems from several fields of engineering. The book features clear and concise principles and presents detailed descriptions of leading methods such as the pattern search (PS) algorithm, the genetic algorithm (GA), the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm, the Tabu search (TS) algorithm, the ant colony optimization (ACO), and the particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique. Chapter 1 of Meta-heuristic and Evolutionary Algorithms for Engineering Optimization provides an overview of optimization and defines it by presenting examples of optimization problems in different engineering domains. Chapter 2 presents an introduction to meta-heuristic and evolutionary algorithms and links them to engineering problems. Chapters 3 to 22 are each devoted to a separate algorithm— and they each start with a brief literature review of the development of the algorithm, and its applications to engineering problems. The principles, steps, and execution of the algorithms are described in detail, and a pseudo code of the algorithm is presented, which serves as a guideline for coding the algorithm to solve specific applications. This book: Introduces state-of-the-art metaheuristic algorithms and their applications to engineering optimization; Fills a gap in the current literature by compiling and explaining the various meta-heuristic and evolutionary algorithms in a clear and systematic manner; Provides a step-by-step presentation of each algorithm and guidelines for practical implementation and coding of algorithms; Discusses and assesses the performance of metaheuristic algorithms in multiple problems from many fields of engineering; Relates optimization algorithms to engineering problems employing a unifying approach. Meta-heuristic and Evolutionary Algorithms for Engineering Optimization is a reference intended for students, engineers, researchers, and instructors in the fields of industrial engineering, operations research, optimization/mathematics, engineering optimization, and computer science. OMID BOZORG-HADDAD, PhD, is Professor in the Department of Irrigation and Reclamation Engineering at the University of Tehran, Iran. MOHAMMAD SOLGI, M.Sc., is Teacher Assistant for M.Sc. courses at the University of Tehran, Iran. HUGO A. LOÁICIGA, PhD, is Professor in the Department of Geography at the University of California, Santa Barbara, United States of America.

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Earthquake Occurrence provides the reader with a review of algorithms applicable for modeling seismicity, such as short-term earthquake clustering and pseudo-periodic long-term behavior of major earthquakes. The concept of the likelihood ratio of a set of observations under different hypotheses is applied for comparison among various models. In short-term models, known by the term ETAS, the occurrence space and time rate density of earthquakes is modeled as the sum of two terms, one representing the independent or spontaneous events, and the other representing the activity triggered by previous earthquakes. Examples of the application of such algorithms in real cases are also reported. Dealing with long-term recurrence models, renewal time-dependent models, implying a pseudo-periodicity of earthquake occurrence, are compared with the simple time-independent Poisson model, in which every event occurs regardless of what has occurred in the past. The book also introduces a number of computer codes developed by the authors over decades of seismological research.