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Digital technologies are reshaping every field of social and economic lives, so do they in the world of scientific knowledge. “The New Challenges of Knowledge” aims at understanding how the new digital technologies alter the production, diffusion and valorization of knowledge. We propose to give an insight into the economical, geopolitical and political stakes of numeric in knowledge in different countries. Law is at the center of this evolution, especially in the case of national and international confusion about Internet, Science and knowledge.

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MOOCs (Massive Online Open Courses) are shaking up the traditional forms of primary and continuing education and training. These new distance teaching tools which take advantage of the Web and social network revolution are making us think again about how we teach and learn.

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The main aim of this book is to offer companies a simple and practical method to assess their maturity in the Governance Information System, so that they are in working order to face the challenges of Digital Transformation. How can companies effectively manage their investment in IT systems and make the most of their development?

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Acclaimed by various content platforms (books, music, movies) and auction sites online, recommendation systems are key elements of digital strategies. If development was originally intended for the performance of information systems, the issues are now massively moved on logical optimization of the customer relationship, with the main objective to maximize potential sales. On the transdisciplinary approach, engines and recommender systems brings together contributions linking information science and communications, marketing, sociology, mathematics and computing. It deals with the understanding of the underlying models for recommender systems and describes their historical perspective. It also analyzes their development in the content offerings and assesses their impact on user behavior.

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During the reception of a piece of information, we are never passive. Depending on its origin and content, from our personal beliefs and convictions, we bestow upon this piece of information, spontaneously or after reflection, a certain amount of confidence. Too much confidence shows a degree of naivety, whereas an absolute lack of it condemns us as being paranoid. These two attitudes are symmetrically detrimental, not only to the proper perception of this information but also to its use. Beyond these two extremes, each person generally adopts an intermediate position when faced with the reception of information, depending on its provenance and credibility. We still need to understand and explain how these judgements are conceived, in what context and to what end. Spanning the approaches offered by philosophy, military intelligence, algorithmics and information science, this book presents the concepts of information and the confidence placed in it, the methods that militaries, the first to be aware of the need, have or should have adopted, tools to help them, and the prospects that they have opened up. Beyond the military context, the book reveals ways to evaluate information for the good of other fields such as economic intelligence, and, more globally, the informational monitoring by governments and businesses. Contents 1. Information: Philosophical Analysis and Strategic Applications, Mouhamadou El Hady Ba and Philippe Capet. 2. Epistemic Trust, Gloria Origgi. 3. The Fundamentals of Intelligence, Philippe Lemercier. 4. Information Evaluation in the Military Domain: Doctrines, Practices and Shortcomings, Philippe Capet and Adrien Revault d’Allonnes. 5. Multidimensional Approach to Reliability Evaluation of Information Sources, Frédéric Pichon, Christophe Labreuche, Bertrand Duqueroie and Thomas Delavallade. 6. Uncertainty of an Event and its Markers in Natural Language Processing, Mouhamadou El Hady Ba, Stéphanie Brizard, Tanneguy Dulong and Bénédicte Goujon. 7. Quantitative Information Evaluation: Modeling and Experimental Evaluation, Marie-Jeanne Lesot, Frédéric Pichon and Thomas Delavallade. 8. When Reported Information Is Second Hand, Laurence Cholvy. 9. An Architecture for the Evolution of Trust: Definition and Impact of the Necessary Dimensions of Opinion Making, Adrien Revault d’Allonnes. About the Authors Philippe Capet is a project manager and research engineer at Ektimo, working mainly on information management and control in military contexts. Thomas Delavallade is an advanced studies engineer at Thales Communications & Security, working on social media mining in the context of crisis management, cybersecurity and the fight against cybercrime.

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The purpose of this book is to question the relationships involved in decision making and the systems designed to support it: decision support systems (DSS). The focus is on how these systems are engineered; to stop and think about the questions to be asked throughout the engineering process and, in particular, about the impact designers’ choices have on these systems. This therefore involves identifying the elements of the problem of decision support systems engineering: the main objects and dimensions to be considered and the relationships they involve, issues at the levels of the decision-maker, of the organization (and even of society), the general approach to which to subscribe and so on.

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Since its inception, the Internet has evolved from a textual information system towards a multimedia information system, in which data, services and applications are consumed as content. Today, however, the main problem faced is that applications are now content-oriented but the protocol stack remains the same, based on the content location. Thus, it is clear that the Internet’s current architecture must change. This new architecture should take into account aspects to improve content location and delivery efficiency and also content availability. Fulfilling these requirements is the main goal of information-centric networks (ICNs). ICN is a new communication paradigm to increase the efficiency of content delivery and also content availability. In this new concept, the network infrastructure actively contributes to content caching and distribution. This book presents the basic concepts of ICNs, describes the main architecture proposals for these networks, and discusses the main challenges to their development. Information Centric-Networks looks at the current challenges for this concept, including: naming, routing and caching on the network-core elements, several aspects of content security, user privacy, and practical issues in implementing ICNs. Contents 1. Content Distribution on the Internet. 2. Information-Centric Networks. 3. Main ICN Architectures. 4. Challenges. 5. Practical Issues. About the Authors Gabriel M. Brito is an Engineer at Petrobras in Brazil and studying for a Master’s degree at the Universidade Federal Fluminense in Brazil. Pedro Braconnot Velloso is an Associate Professor in the Department of Computer Science at the Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Brazil. He worked for Bell Labs France as a research engineer from 2009 to 2011. Igor M. Moraes is an Associate Professor at the Universidade Federal Fluminense in Brazil.

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More and more organizations are becoming aware of the importance of tacit and explicit knowledge owned by their members which corresponds to their experience and accumulated knowledge about the firm activities. However, considering the large amount of knowledge created and used in the organization, especially with the evolution of information and communications technologies, the firm must first determine the specific knowledge on which it is necessary to focus. Creating activities to enhance identification, preservation, and use of this knowledge is a powerful mean to improve the level of economical performance of the organization. Thus, companies invest on knowledge management programs, in order to develop a knowledge sharing and collaboration culture, to amplify individual and organizational learning, to make easier accessing and transferring knowledge, and to insure knowledge preservation. Several researches can be considered to develop knowledge management programs supported by information and knowledge systems, according to their context, their culture and the stakeholders' viewpoints.

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Brain–computer interfaces (BCI) are devices which measure brain activity and translate it into messages or commands, thereby opening up many possibilities for investigation and application. This book provides keys for understanding and designing these multi-disciplinary interfaces, which require many fields of expertise such as neuroscience, statistics, informatics and psychology. This second volume, Technology and Applications, is focused on the field of BCI from the perspective of its end users, such as those with disabilities to practitioners. Covering clinical applications and the field of video games, the book then goes on to explore user needs which drive the design and development of BCI. The software used for their design, primarily OpenViBE, is explained step by step, before a discussion on the use of BCI from ethical, philosophical and social perspectives. The basic notions developed in this reference book are intended to be accessible to all readers interested in BCI, whatever their background. More advanced material is also offered, for readers who want to expand their knowledge in disciplinary fields underlying BCI.

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Supply chain management is a key topic for a large variety of strategic decision problems. It is essential in making efficient decisions related to the management of inventory and the delivery of final products to customers. The focus of this book is the understanding of the supply chain taxonomy, the different levels of decision and the impact of one level on another depending on the modeling of the addressed objectives. The authors explore the potential problems that can be addressed within the supply chain, such as the inventory, the transportation and issues of holding, and find applications in numerous fields of study, from cloud computing and networking through to industrial sciences. The reader can find each issue described and its positioning in the supply chain determined. A computer science framework is also developed to show how the use of electronic platforms can aid in the handling of these potential problems.