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PRICING INSURANCE RISK A comprehensive framework for measuring, valuing, and managing risk Pricing Insurance Risk: Theory and Practice delivers an accessible and authoritative account of how to determine the premium for a portfolio of non-hedgeable insurance risks and how to allocate it fairly to each portfolio component. The authors synthesize hundreds of academic research papers, bringing to light little-appreciated answers to fundamental questions about the relationships between insurance risk, capital, and premium. They lean on their industry experience throughout to connect the theory to real-world practice, such as assessing the performance of business units, evaluating risk transfer options, and optimizing portfolio mix. Readers will discover: Definitions, classifications, and specifications of risk An in-depth treatment of classical risk measures and premium calculation principles Properties of risk measures and their visualization A logical framework for spectral and coherent risk measures How risk measures for capital and pricing are distinct but interact Why the cost of capital, not capital itself, should be allocated The natural allocation method and how it unifies marginal and risk-adjusted probability approaches Applications to reserve risk, reinsurance, asset risk, franchise value, and portfolio optimization Perfect for actuaries working in the non-life or general insurance and reinsurance sectors, Pricing Insurance Risk: Theory and Practice is also an indispensable resource for banking and finance professionals, as well as risk management professionals seeking insight into measuring the value of their efforts to mitigate, transfer, or bear nonsystematic risk.

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The Adriatic is ‘the small Mediterranean’ – a sea within a sea, part of the Mediterranean and at the same time detached from it, a largely enclosed sea with stunning coastlines and a long history of commercial, political and cultural exchange. Silent witness to the flow of civilizations, the Adriatic is the meeting point of East and West where many empires had their frontiers and some overlapped. With Italy on one side and the Balkans on the other, the Adriatic is the area where the Latin West became intertwined with the Greek and Ottoman East. This book tells the history of the Adriatic from the first cultures of the Neolithic Age through to the present day. All of the great civilizations and cultures that bordered and crossed the Adriatic are discussed: Ancient Greece and Rome, Byzantium and the Holy Roman Empire, Venice and the Ottomans, Catholicism, Orthodox Christianity and Islam. Byzantium was replaced by Venice, queen of the Adriatic, which reached its zenith at the beginning of the sixteenth century and maintained commercial and military hegemony in its Gulf, sharing the sea with the Turks, the Habsburgs, the Pope and the Spanish vice-kingdom of Naples. It was Napoleon who ended Venice’s reign in 1797. In the nineteenth century, the Austrian Empire prevailed, and Central Europe reached the Mediterranean through the Adriatic. United Italy placed its most symbolic frontier in the eastern Adriatic, clashing with Austria-Hungary in the First World War. The twentieth century was marked by the prolonged conflicts and eventually peace between Yugoslavia, Albania and Italy. Today the Adriatic is a region increasingly integrated into the European Union, experiencing a new era of cooperation following the dramatic collapse of Yugoslavia. Across centuries, this book illustrates the rich cultural and artistic heritage of diverse civilizations as they left their mark on the cities, shores and states of the Adriatic.

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Become a U.S. immigration wiz with this hands-on and practical guide to U.S. citizenship In U.S. Citizenship For Dummies , expert citizenship and ESL instructor Jennifer Gagliardi walks you through the ins and outs of the complicated process of obtaining citizenship in the United States. From preparing for test day to understanding the interview process and learning about recent changes to immigration laws, this book demystifies the legal process of transforming a foreign national into a citizen of the U.S. In this book, you’ll get: Up-to-date info on the various application and immigration forms you’ll need to complete to become a citizen Needed preparation for the all-important interview Complete coverage of the different visas and green cards available to foreign nationals and how you can qualify for themWhether you’re an immigrant-to-be who’s interested in becoming an American citizen, or you’re already a citizen but you want to bone up on U.S. history, government, and civics knowledge, U.S. Citizenship For Dummies is the perfect guide to the procedural and substantive knowledge you need to understand the American immigration system.

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This second edition of the popular guide to critical appraisal is a fully updated revision of the previous edition. Written in the same easily accessible style, The Pocket Guide to Critical Appraisal now provides annotated checklists of the most common research designs. Consistent with recent developments in evidence-based medicine, these checklists distinguish between the risk of bias in the conduct of published studies and the value of the findings for healthcare delivery. Five new chapters have been added and the original chapters have been rewritten, making the new edition a complete and concise guide for the evaluation of research quality. In addition to the checklists, the book also: describes how to quickly identify the information needed for the critical appraisal provides simple explanations of statistical significance and the interpretation of confidence intervals reviews the major sources of bias and their impact on research findings explains how to summarise the risk of bias outlines the concept of certainty of evidence and how to calculate it identifies the challenges in assessing the value of research findings The Pocket Guide to Critical Appraisal is an essential guide for all health professions and students who read research papers and use their findings.

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A user-friendly reference to basic, foundational information on veterinary ophthalmology This book provides readers with a user-friendly manual to the basics of veterinary ophthalmology. It puts a focus on the most relevant information for clinical practice. Emphasizing canine ophthalmology, the book also covers the foundations of feline, equine, farm animal, and exotic animal ophthalmology. To aid in reader comprehension and information assimilation, a companion website presents review questions and the figures from the book in PowerPoint. Sample topics covered within the work include: Ophthalmic foundations: ophthalmic development and structure, physiology of the eye and vision, and ocular pharmacology and therapeutics Canine ophthalmology: canine orbit (disease and surgery), canine eyelids (disease and surgery), canine lacrimal apparatus (tear secretion and drainage), canine cornea (diseases and surgery) and canine glaucoma Other species: feline ophthalmology, equine ophthalmology, and food and fiber animal ophthalmology Ophthalmic and systemic diseases: comparative neuro-ophthalmology and systemic disease and the eye Essentials of Veterinary Ophthalmology is a useful guide for veterinary students and practitioners looking to build out their core foundations of knowledge within their specific programs of study and disciplines.

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A complete overview of the topic of viscoplastic flow in metallic solids produced by shear banding  This book presents novel ideas about inelastic deformation and failure of the material in a clear, concise manner. It exposes readers to information that will allow them to acquire the competence and ability to deal with up-to-date manufacturing and failure processes. It also portrays an interdisciplinary and revolutionary understanding of deformation processes in solids. Shear banding's typical mechanism becomes the active cause of viscoplastic flow and not the passive effect.  Viscoplastic Flow in Metallic Solids Produced by Shear Banding  begins with discussing the new physical model of multilevel hierarchy and evolution of micro-shear bands. It then covers the physical motivation and heuristic foundations of theoretical description concerning known results in the literature. It examines the difficulties of applying a direct multiscale integration scheme across the scales. It also presents an extension of the representative volume element (RVE) concept using the general theory of propagating the singular surfaces of the microscopic velocity field sweeping the RVE. It also reveals a new formulation of the description of the shear strain rate generated by the multilevel hierarchy of shear bands in the workflow integration approach, in which information from the simulation at different levels flows. This book:  Presents fresh ideas about inelastic deformation and failure of materials Provides readers with the competence and ability to deal with up-to-date manufacturing and failure processes Sheds light on the interdisciplinary revolution in the recent understanding of deformation processes in solids  Viscoplastic Flow in Metallic Solids Produced by Shear Banding  will appeal to researchers studying physical foundations of inelastic deformation of materials and dealing with numerical simulations of manufacturing processes. It is also an excellent resource for graduate and postgraduate students of material science and mechanical engineering faculties.