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Trust And Deception
Written by Hannah K
© 2016 Hannah K,
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To My Mother
Generally, the Japanese term, Tenno, is commonly translated into “the Emperor” in most of the publication in English. However, there is a clear distinction between Tenno and the Emperor. I have decided to call Tenno Tenno and Tenno, who wanted to make the empire, the Emperor. The first Emperor was the Emperor Tenji. The Emperor Tenji wanted to be an emperor like that of Qin Empire. There were only few Tenno who wanted to be the emperors in Japanese history. The second virtual Emperor was the Emperor Meiji, the third the Emperor Taisho, the fourth the Emperor Showa. These three modern Emperors did not have intention to build an Empire. The lawmakers of those days wanted to unite Japan as an Empire. After the Pacific War, the Emperor Showa, Hirohito, came to be Showa Tenno. In this book, after the Pacific War, I call him Showa Tenno.
Another thing I would like to add is that even the current Constitution of Japan call the Tenno Household the Imperial Household. However, Japan is not an empire anymore. Therefore, I think the imperial household should be called Tenno Household or Royal Household. Furthermore, especially, before the Pacific War the Military Regime plotted every action on their own so, I called Japanese Imperial Military Japanese Empire Military. I use the term Empire instead of Imperial when I wrote about the Military Regime.
Jitoh Tenno (The period of reign, 690-697) started to call all kings (Oh-Kimi) Tenno, so all Oh-Kimi are called Tenno in Japanese history. Japanese does not have any singular or plural forms like English. Kogo is translated into the Empress. Jingu Kogo was the first Kogo in the oral history of Japanese mythology. Only there are few Kogo’s stories in this book.
In terms of Empire, if you take a look at history books, most of the empires are called dynasties. However, I called the dynasties empires for the convenience of reader’s understanding. Empires are organized by one absolute ruler (almost a dictator) and his bureaucrats. Traditionally, Japan was composed of traditional Tribal-Clan system, which is completely different from that of Empires. So, in this book, all the dynasties which were virtually empires are called “the empire.”
There is a strange pronunciation system called On-bin, a kind of euphonic change, owing to the Kanji characters. So, I dare not use On-bin in most of the terminology. For example, the term “Kami” can also be pronounced “Shin,” or “Jin.” I take the pronunciation “Kami.” In case of Jinja, I call them “Kami-Shrine.” “Hachiman Jinja” are named “Hachiman-Kami-Shrine.”
I sincerely hope these alternations would help you to understand Japan better.
I would like to introduce my contributors to the readers. Masahiro Kasai is a sociologist and has been instructing many researchers who earned PhD. It is fortunate that he advised me with the scientific framework of religion to write this book. He also gave me references which was very helpful in organizing this book. Masahiro Kasai is my relative but I respect him as a prominent sociologist.
Another researcher who influenced me was the late Dr. Katuyoshi Watanabe, who obtained PhD degree. At Kyushu University, after he finished doctorate course with the help of my relative and the contributor of this book, a researcher, Masahiro Kasai, who supervised Mr. Watanabe’s theoretical framework of his PhD thesis. This relative of mine is a councilor of Japanese Association for Religious Studies, and he is an expert of theoretical matters for religious phenomena. He has instructed me how to theorize cultural phenomena and patterns.
The late Dr. Watanabe especially gave me detailed facts and information regarding Shinto rituals and historical evidences of ancient Japan and ancient China. He was really interested in my understanding of Shinto, especially the relationship between Shinto and Tenno system. He promised to introduce me to the late Dr. Junichi Kamata the last time when I met him. I am awfully sorry to inform the readers of this book that Dr. Watanabe passed away in the fall in 2014. He was looking forward to reading my work.
Another was the late Dr. Junichi Kamata, who was an official for rituals of the Imperial Household Agency. The late Dr. Kamata found the value of the late Dr.Watanabe’s doctorate thesis, “Chin-Kon-Sai-no-Kenkyu, Study of the Ceremony for Repose of Soul,” which is traditionally carried out one day before “Daijo-Sai” ceremony. The late Dr. Kamata greatly appreciated the correctness of the late Dr. Watanabe’s PhD thesis, in which he pointed out Dr. Origuchi’s misunderstanding of “Chin-Kon-Sai,” and the late Dr. Kamata offered Dr. Watanabe’s thesis to current Tenno (The Japanese term for the Emperor). The late Dr. Watanabe said to me, “When you complete this book, Dr, Kamata would be happy to read your work.” His remark gave me great encouragement to complete this book. Dr. Kamata also passed away in early summer in 2014.
I sincerely express my condolences on the late Dr. Kamata and the late Dr. Watanabe.
Brief Summary of Adviser’s Background:
Born in China, 1945
Major Field of Study:
Sociological Study of Religion
History of Japanese Religion
The Study of the Family System and the Social Structure
Major Career and Background:
Bachelor of Arts at Kyushu University
Masters of Degree at Kyushu University
Finished Doctorate Course at Kyushu University
Professor’s Assistant Kyushu University
Lecturer at Kyushu University
Professor at Nishinihon Junior College
Special Guest Lecturer: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies
An MC for International Association of History of Religion (IAHR)
Held in Tokyo (2005)
Councilor at the Japan Association of the Study of Religion and Society
Editorial Board for the Japanese Association for the Study of Religion and Society
Director at Nishinihon Association of History and Religion
I still remember the sad look on my mother’s face when she told me this story. She was invited as a homestay guest by Dr. Hessel H. Flitter, a dean of the Nursing School at the University of Hawaii and