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Visual attention is a relatively new area of study combining a number of disciplines: artificial neural networks, artificial intelligence, vision science and psychology. The aim is to build computational models similar to human vision in order to solve tough problems for many potential applications including object recognition, unmanned vehicle navigation, and image and video coding and processing. In this book, the authors provide an up to date and highly applied introduction to the topic of visual attention, aiding researchers in creating powerful computer vision systems. Areas covered include the significance of vision research, psychology and computer vision, existing computational visual attention models, and the authors' contributions on visual attention models, and applications in various image and video processing tasks. This book is geared for graduates students and researchers in neural networks, image processing, machine learning, computer vision, and other areas of biologically inspired model building and applications. The book can also be used by practicing engineers looking for techniques involving the application of image coding, video processing, machine vision and brain-like robots to real-world systems. Other students and researchers with interdisciplinary interests will also find this book appealing. Provides a key knowledge boost to developers of image processing applications Is unique in emphasizing the practical utility of attention mechanisms Includes a number of real-world examples that readers can implement in their own work: robot navigation and object selection image and video quality assessment image and video coding Provides codes for users to apply in practical attentional models and mechanisms

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Macrocyclic molecules contain rings made up of seven or more atoms. They are interesting because they provide building blocks for synthesizing precise two or three dimensional structures – an important goal in nanotechnology. For example, they can be used to develop nanosized reaction vessels, cages, switches and shuttles, and have potential as components in molecular computers. They also have applications as catalysts and sensors. Macrocycles: Construction, Chemistry and Nanotechnology Applications is an essential introduction this important class of molecules and describes how to synthesise them, their chemistry, how they can be used as nanotechnology building blocks, and their applications. A wide range of structures synthesised over the past few decades are covered, from the simpler cyclophanes and multi-ring aromatic structures to vases, bowls, cages and more complex multi-ring systems and 3D architectures such as “pumpkins”, interlocking chains and knots. Topics covered include: principles of macrocycle synthesis simple ring compounds multi-ring aromatic structures porphyrins and phthalocanines cyclophanes crown ethers, cryptands and spherands calixarenes, resorcinarenes, cavitands, carcerands, and heterocalixarenes cyclodextrins cucurbiturils cyclotriveratylenes rotaxanes catenanes complex 3D architectures, including trefoils and knots Macrocycles: Construction, Chemistry and Nanotechnology Applications distills the essence of this important topic for undergraduate and postgraduate students, and for researchers in other fields interested in getting a general insight into this increasingly important class of molecules.

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This book provides an introduction, discussion, and formal-based modelling of trust theory and its applications in agent-based systems This book gives an accessible explanation of the importance of trust in human interaction and, in general, in autonomous cognitive agents including autonomous technologies. The authors explain the concepts of trust, and describe a principled, general theory of trust grounded on cognitive, cultural, institutional, technical, and normative solutions. This provides a strong base for the author’s discussion of role of trust in agent-based systems supporting human-computer interaction and distributed and virtual organizations or markets (multi-agent systems). Key Features: Provides an accessible introduction to trust, and its importance and applications in agent-based systems Proposes a principled, general theory of trust grounding on cognitive, cultural, institutional, technical, and normative solutions. Offers a clear, intuitive approach, and systematic integration of relevant issues Explains the dynamics of trust, and the relationship between trust and security Offers operational definitions and models directly applicable both in technical and experimental domains Includes a critical examination of trust models in economics, philosophy, psychology, sociology, and AI This book will be a valuable reference for researchers and advanced students focused on information and communication technologies (computer science, artificial intelligence, organizational sciences, and knowledge management etc.), as well as Web-site and robotics designers, and for scholars working on human, social, and cultural aspects of technology. Professionals of ecommerce systems and peer-to-peer systems will also find this text of interest.

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This book provides a comprehensive view of the emerging standards for VoIP emergency calling from an International perspective In this book, the authors provide a treatment of the VoIP emergency calling process that is both comprehensive, looking at all aspects of emergency calling, and practical, providing technical details on how such functions can be implemented. In addition, the authors describe the standardization efforts of the Internet Engineering Task Force who are currently working to improve the situation for VoIP emergency calls. The book provides an overview of emergency calling with a particular focus on the ECRIT emergency calling architecture, and discusses considerations related to implementation, deployment, and regulation of next-generation emergency calling. It also takes a look at practical aspects of emergency calling, with a set of exercises to help the reader get familiar with the technologies involved. Key Features: Comprehensive view of emerging standards for VoIP emergency calling from an international perspective Practical guides for implementing the core of the emergency calling architecture Architectural, practical, and regulatory perspectives Written by experts working on the development of emergency calling architectures and its implementation Includes an accompanying website with open-source software packages (http://www.voip-sos.net/) This book will be an invaluable resource for product managers and developers, equipment vendors, network operators, emergency service providers, and telecommunications regulators. Industry professionals interested in standards compliance will also find this book of interest.

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Fish and seafood are highly perishable, and must be preserved immediately after being caught or harvested. It is very important both to preserving its quality and to ensure that it does not pose any risks to human health upon consumption. Chilling, refrigeration and freezing are the major preservation methods used with seafood and fish products, all three processes aiming to preserve the freshness and flavour of the fish. Consumer demand for fish remains high despite escalating prices in the last ten years which have seen the retail cost of the most popular breeds (cod, haddock, salmon) more than double for unfrozen fish. Many consumers appear to be willing to pay a premium for freshness and quality, both of which are closely linked in shoppers’ minds with the efficient chilling and refrigeration of the fish along the supply chain. At the same time, frozen fish and seafood has also grown more popular with shoppers, as a cheaper, more convenient alternative to refrigerated fresh fish and seafood. Seafood Chilling, Refrigeration and Freezing presents the science behind the chilling, refrigerating and freezing of fish and seafood, describing the chemical, microbiological and physical changes which take place during preservation, and considering the new technologies which can be used, highlighting their benefits and their economic implications. The book takes account of the different requirements for different breeds of fish and seafood, and includes both traditional and novel technologies, providing both current and future perspectives. It will be required reading for food scientists, fish processors and retailers as well as fish specialists, researchers and process designers.

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Rehearse for life in clinical practice with this easy-to-use and unique series, which combines cases drawn from real-life experiences with a refreshing approach to presentations as you would see them in day-to-day situations. Get the most from clinical practice, with Clinical Cases Uncovered Psychiatry is one of the most interesting and challenging areas of study in medicine and Clinical Cases Uncovered is your guide through. With presentations ranging from psychosis to memory loss and from insomnia to self-harm, you tackle each problem as it arises in everyday settings. Tips and key features are highlighted throughout so you can refer back to each case for exam revision and well into your career. For further information, visit www.clinicalcasesuncovered.com

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Zunachst stehen bei der Havarie technischer Systeme die Fragen nach Sicherheit und Kosten im Vordergrund. Aber erst durch die systematische Analyse der schadensauslosenden Mechanismen bekommt man den Schlussel zur nachhaltigen Prophylaxe in die Hand. Das defekte Bauteil ist der «Datentrager» fur den Werkstoff und seinen Zustand sowie fur die Beanspruchungen, die er erfahren hat und fur den Mechanismus seines Versagens. Die Untersuchungsmethoden der Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik sind in der Lage, diese Informationen zu entschlusseln. Durch einen Ist/Soll-Vergleich lasst sich der Schadensausloser dingfest machen. Das vorliegende Buch ist aus einem gleichnamigen Seminar hervorgegangen. Dieses Seminar hat in mehr als 30 Jahren gezeigt, dass Schadensfalle in uberwiegender Zahl auf Zuwiderhandeln gegen bekannte Regeln der Technik beruhen. Daher liegt der Fokus dieses Nachschlagewerks auf der systematischen Gliederung des Fachgebietes und der anschaulichen Erklarung der Schadensmechanismen in der Theorie sowie durch die praktische Darstellung realer Schadensfalle. Diese Kenntnisse sind fur Konstrukteure und Produktionstechniker ebenso von Interesse wie fur Qualitats- und Schadensanalytiker.

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Color Management serves as a comprehensive guide to the implementation of the ICC (International Color Consortium) profile specification, widely used for maintaining color fidelity across multi-media imaging devices and software. The book draws together many of the White Papers produced by the ICC to promote the use of color management and disseminate good practice; the ICC specification has become widely accepted within the color industry, and these papers have been updated, expanded and edited for this collection. Other chapters comprise material that will go on to form future ICC White Papers, as well as some original content. The ICC review process ensures that the material and recommendations included are collaborative, reflecting the input of the wide community of color and imaging scientists and developers who make up its membership. Readers can be assured of the best advice for achieving optimum results. Provides an overview of color management in applications and the role of ICC profiles in a color reproduction system. Presents user guidelines on color measurement procedures and discusses measurement issues for media such as optically-brightened papers and inkjet prints. Offers comprehensive guidance on the latest version of the specification and the application of the perceptual rendering intent with its reference gamut. Examines the construction and benefits of different types of ICC profiles, and sets out compliance test considerations, implementation notes and evaluation of profile quality. Includes a glossary of terms. This book is written for color and imaging scientists developing, implementing and using color management systems within a range of imaging devices and software. Senior undergraduate and postgraduate students will also find the book of use.

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This handbook focuses on biopolymers for both environmental and biomedical applications. It shows recent advances in technology in all areas from chemical synthesis or biosynthesis to end use applications. These areas have not been covered in a single book before and they include biopolymers for chemical and biotechnological modifications, material structures, characterization, processing, properties, and applications. After the introduction which summarizes the importance of biopolymer in the market, the book covers almost all the topics related to polysaccharides, biofibers, bioplastics, biocomposites, natural rubber, gums, bacterial and blood compatible polymers, and applications of biopolymers in various fields.

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With a foreword by Yakov Rekhter «Here at last is a single, all encompassing resource where the myriad applications sharpen into a comprehensible text that first explains the whys and whats of each application before going on to the technical detail of the hows.» —Kireeti Kompella, CTO Junos, Juniper Networks The authoritative guide to MPLS, now in its Third edition, fully updated with brand new material! MPLS is now considered the networking technology for carrying all types of network traffic, including voice telephony, real-time video, and data traffic. In MPLS-Enabled Applications, Third Edition, the authors methodically show how MPLS holds the key to network convergence by allowing operators to offer more services over a single physical infrastructure. The Third Edition contains more than 170 illustrations, new chapters, and more coverage, guiding the reader from the basics of the technology, though all its major VPN applications. MPLS Enabled-Applications contains up-to-date coverage of: The current status and future potential of all major MPLS applications, including L2VPN, L3VPN, pseudowires and VPLS. A new chapter with up to date coverage of the MPLS transport profile, MPLS-TP. MPLS in access networks and Seamless MPLS, the new architecture for extending MPLS into the access, discussed in depth for both the unicast and the multicast case. Extensive coverage of multicast support in L3VPNs (mVPNs), explaining and comparing both the PIM/GRE and the next generation BGP/MPLS solutions, and including a new chapter on advanced topics in next generation multicast VPNs. A new chapter on advanced protection techniques, including detailed discussion of 50 ms end-to-end service restoration. Comprehensive coverage of the base technology, as well as the latest IETF drafts, including topics such as pseudowire redundancy, VPLS multihoming, IRB and P2MP pseudowires. MPLS-Enabled Applications will provide those involved in the design and deployment of MPLS systems, as well as those researching the area of MPLS networks, with a thoroughly modern view of how MPLS is transforming the networking world. «Essential new material for those trying to understand the next steps in MPLS.» —Adrian Farrel, IETF Routing Area Director «MPLS-Enabled Applications takes a unique and creative approach in explaining MPLS concepts and how they are applied in practice to meet the needs of Enterprise and Service Provider networks. I consistently recommend this book to colleagues in the engineering, education and business community.» —Dave Cooper, Chief IP Technologist, Global Crossing Ltd